Saturday, April 23, 2005

Forward

I. Introduction
A. Technical History
B. Types of Stainless Steel

II. Metallurgy
A. Metallic bond
1) pure iron ( best treatment is by J.L.Walter, “Alloying”)
2) solid solutions
3) interstitial solutions
4) secondary phases
5) intermetallic phases
6) Relationship of enthalpy to bonding
7) Relationship of entropy to structure
B. Thermodynamics
1) ( a rigorous treatment as is given by Turkdogan in
“Thermodynamics of Steelmaking”)
2) derivation of phase diagram
3) Pourbaix diagrams
4) use of ThermoCalc
C. Phases found in stainless steel
1) molten
2) delta ferrite and ferrite
3) austenite
4) intermetallic phases
5) oxides, sulfides, carbides, nitrides, etc.
D. Interfaces
1) The ferrite/austenite interface
2) Grain boundaries in ferrite and austenite
3) Texture
4) Interfaces between non-metallic phases and ferrite and austenite
E. Diffusion
1) Review of Fick’s laws.
2) Interstitial vs. Substitutional
3) Bulk vs. Grain Boundary
F. Kinetics of solidification and casting
1) Nucleation
2) Planar, cellular and dendritic growth
3) Eutectic growth
4) Peritectic growth
5) Batch vs, continuous casting processes
G. Phase transformations
1) Nucleation
2) Growth
3) The JME-K equation, TTT and CCT digrams
4) Precipitation of carbides, nitrides, oxides, sulfides, etc.
H. Surfaces
1) Oxides
2) Passive layer
3) Surface active agents
I. Mechanical Metallurgy
1) Deformation modes
a) BCC
b) FCC
2) Solid solution hardening
3) Precipitation hardening
4) Strain hardening
5) Hall-Petch
6) Toughness
7) Fatigue
8) Creep
9) Anisotropy
10) Wear resistance, friction and galling
J. Physical Properties
1) modulus
2) thermal properties
3) electrical properties
4) magnetic properties
5) thermodynamic properties

III. Corrosion
A. Thermodynamic basis of corrosion
1) The Nernst equation
2) Galvanic vs. electrolysis cells
3) Corrosion tendency
B. Corrosion kinetics
1) Faraday’s law
2) The Butler-Volmer equation
a) Tafel regime: electrode-kinetics control
b) Mass transfer control
3) Migration and ionic-diffusion
4) Mixed potential theory and polarization diagrams
5) Passivation
a) Theory
b) Effect on polarization diagrams
C. Forms of corrosion
1) General corrosion
2) Localized corrosion (pitting)
3) Corrosion combined with fatigue or fracture
4) Bio-corrosion and befouling
5) Atmospheric corrosion
6) Oxidation

IV. Types of Stainless Steel
A. Ferritic ( include property and chemistry statistics)
1) Structure
a) phase diagrams and alloy effect
b) non-stabilized
c) stabilized low chromium
d) stabilized 17% chromium
e) stabilized high chromium
f) cast versions
2) Mechanical Behavior
a) deformation, recrystallization and texture
b) tensile properties
c) toughness
d) high temperature behavior
e) formability and machinability
3) Corrosion and Oxidation Resistance
a) influence of alloy
b) influence of microstructure
c) intergranular
d) pitting and crevice corrosion
e) general corrosion
f) oxidation
4) Non-technical aspects
a) cost
b) availability
c) forms and finishes
B. Martensitic
1) Structure
a) phase diagrams and alloy effect
b) solidification
c) phase transformations
d) quenching and tempering
2) Mechanical behavior
a) tensile properties and hardness
b) toughness
c) high temperature properties
d) formability and machinability
3) Corrosion resistance
a) influence of alloy
b) influence of microstructure
c) pitting
d) SCC
e) General corrosion
f) High temperature attack
4) Non-technical aspects
a) cost
b) availability
c) forms and finishes
C. Austenitic
1) Structure
a) phase diagrams and alloy effects
b) solidification
c) phase transformations
d) precipitation
e) intermetallic phases
2) Mechanical behavior
a) tensile properties and hardness
b) toughness
c) high temperature properties
d) cryogenic properties
e) formability and machinability
3) Corrosion resistance
a) influence of alloy
b) influence of microstructure
c) Pitting and crevice
d) SCC
e) general corrosion
f) high temperature attack
4) Non- technical aspects
a) cost
b) availability
c) forms and finishes
D. Duplex
1) Structure
a) phase diagrams and alloy effects
b) solidification
c) phase transformations
d) precipitation
e) intermetallic phases
2) Mechanical behavior
a) tensile properties and hardness
b) toughness
c) high temperature
d) cryogenic
e) formability and machinability
3) Corrosion resistance
a) influence of microstructure
b) influence of alloy
c) pitting and crevice
d) SCC
e) general corrosion
f) high temperature attack
4) Non-technical aspects
a) cost
b) availability
c) forms and finishes
E. Precipitation Hardening
1) Structure
a) phase diagrams and alloy effects
b) phase transformations
c) precipitation
2) Mechanical behavior
a) tensile properties and hardness
b) toughness
c) high temperature
d) cryogenic
e) formability and machinability
3) Corrosion resistance
a) influence of microstructure
b) influence of alloy
4) Non-technical aspects
a) cost
b) availability
c) forms and finishes
V. Processing
A. Melting
1) Thermodynamics
2) Electric furnace/AOD
3) VIM/VAR
4) Electroslag remelt
5) Casting
B. Hot processing
1) slab reheat
2) hot rolling
3) forging
4) annealing
C. Pickling and cleaning
1) food and medical use
2) degreasing
3) descaling
4) pickling
5) electrolytic
6) molten salt
7) passivation
D. Surface finishing
1) bright finishing
2) polishing
3) rolled-on finishes
4) coloring
5) coating
6) hardening
E. Welding and joining
1) Metallurgical basis
1) Types of welding
a) Shielded arc
b) GTAW
c) GMAW
d) Submerged arc
e) Laser
2) Procedures by grade
3) Welding dissimilar metals
4) Post-weld treatment
5) Brazing and soldering
6) Bonding
F. Cold forming
1) drawing
2) bending
3) blanking, punching, piercing
4) spinning
5) cold heading
6) swaging
7) extrusion
8) wire drawing
9) slitting
G. Machining
1) machinability
2) influence of physical properties
3) influence of metallurgical properties
4) influence of inclusions
5) influence of tool material
H. Other Processing
1) Foundry practices
2) Powder metallurgy practices
3) Tube making


VI Applications of Stainless Steel
A. Automotive
1) exhaust systems
2) valves
3) trim
4) other components
a) airbags
b) tubing
c) seatbelt anchors
d) hose clamps
B. Transport
1) railcar
2) truck parts
3) containers
C. Domestic uses
1) kitchen appliances
2) cooking utensils
3) flatware and cutlery
4) laundry appliances
5) furnace components
6) plumbing components
D. Restaurant and food industry
1) cooking equipment
2) serving equipment
3) food production equipment
4) beverage equipment
E. Medical and pharmaceutical equipment
1) Implants and piercings
2) medical equipment
3) production equipment
F. Industrial uses
1) paper production
2) pollution control
3) petroleum production and refining
4) chemical industry
5) heat exchangers
G. Power generation
1) nuclear
2) fossil fuel
3) fuel cell


H. Architectural and construction
1) roofs
2) exterior, interior panels
3) elevators
4) plumbing
5) structural
6) fire resistant
7) handrails
8) rebar
9) fasteners
I. Marine
1) hardware
2) water systems
J. Electronic and Electrical
1) semi-conductor production
2) device components
3) shielding applications
4) grid resistors
5) boxes
6) non-magnetic equipment
K. High temperature service
1) heating elements
2) furnace hardware
3) flue liners
4) engine components
L. Esthetic uses
1) jewelry
2) sculpture
M. General purpose
1) tooling
2) hardware
3) mesh, chain, belts, rope
4) razors
5) coinage
6) vacuum equipment
7) springs
VII. Alloy Selection and Design
A. Selection for corrosion resistance
1) specific chemicals resistance
2) atmospheric corrosion
3) biological environment
4) food contact
5) high temperatures
6) special environments
B. Selection for formability
1) drawing
2) machining
C. Selection for mechanical properties
1) strength
2) wear resistance
3) toughness
4) creep and stress rupture
5) cryogenic mechanical properties
D. Selection for special properties
1) magnetic characteristics
2) thermal characteristics
3) electrical characteristics
E. Alloy design
1) corrosion resistance enhancement
2) formability enhancement
3) mechanical properties